There are certain land measurements which are being used in different areas of Pakistan in accordance with vernacular versions of respective areas. I hope this information will be helpful in understanding these differences while addressing issues related to immovable property.

## Land Measurements:

1 inch = 2.54 centimetres

1 foot = 30.48 centimetres

1 yard = 91.44 centimetres

1 mile =1.61 kilometres

1 Ghatta = 8.25 feet

## Square Measure:

1 square foot = 0.093 square metre

1 square yard = 0.836 square metre

1 square mile = 2.59 square kilometre = 259 hectares

1 acre = 0.405 hectares

1 Acre = 4 Bigha 16 Biswa (4840 Sq.Yds)

1 Bigha = 20 Biswas (1008 Sq.Yds)

1 Biswa = 50 Sq.Yards

## The basic Land Measurements used in Punjab

• 1 karam is 5.5 feet

• 1 marla is 9 Sq karams (272.25 sq ft)

• 1 kanaal is 20 marlas (5,445 sq ft)

• 1 keela is 8 kanaals (43,560 sq ft = 1 acre)

• 1 marabba is 25 keelas (1,089,000 sq ft = 25 acres)

A keela is measured rectangularly, reckoned as an area 36 karams x 40 karams, or 198 feet x 220 feet = 43,560 square feet.

Kothis are measured in marlas and kanaals. Most are 2-4 kanaals but the big ones can be anything from 4-6 kanaals.

A couple of older measures:

1 biswa = 15 Sq karams; 12 biswas = 1 kanaal

1 bigha = 20 biswas – 1008 Sq Yards – 842.68 Sq Mtr

In land transaction the acre is often used to express areas of land. Land records are written in metric system. An acre is approximately 40% of a hectare.

The following are the land measurements units used in Balochistan Province .

- 1 Karam = 2 ft. steps = 5.5 ft. = 1.67 m
- 1 sq. Karam = 5.5 x 5.5 ft. = 30.25 Sq. ft.
- 1 Pole = 9 Sq karam = 272.25 Sq. ft.
- 40 pole = 1 Rod = 10890 Sq. ft.
- 4 Rod = 1 Acre = 43560 Sq. ft.

The measurement of agricultural land was carried in British Units. The units used for land measurements were as follows:

12 inches = 1 foot

3 feet = 1 yard

9 Square Feet = 1 square yard

121Square yard = 1 Guntha

40 Gunthas = 1 acre

In so many village maps you might have seen scale as a for example 1Inch=10 Chain.

You have to convert chain into feet as follows:

1 Chain = 66 feet or 22 yards

10 chains = 1 furlong

1 furlong = 201.168 Metres

The land is now measured in Metric System using following decimal table.

1000 Millimeters = 1 Metre

100 Square Metres = 1 Are

100 Ares = 1 Hector

In 1958, the United States and countries of the Commonwealth of Nations defined the length of the international yard to be 0.9144 meters. Consequently, the international acre is exactly 4,046.8564224 square meters. Accordingly

1 Hector = 2.47 acres (approximately)

In the Village Form VII-XII when you read in the “area” column numbers for example

01-34-21 it means

01 = 10000 Square Metres

34 = 3400 Square Metres

21 = 21 Square Metres

Total = 13421 Square Metres

Conversion Table

1 Inch = 2.54 Centimetre

36 Inches = 1 yard

1 yard = 91.44 Centimetres

1 yard = 00.9144 Metres

1 Centimetre = 00.393 inches

100 Centimetres = 39.3 inches

1 Metre = 3.28 ft

1 acre = 1 furlong X 1 chain

1 acre = 660 ft X 66 ft

1 acre = 43560 Sq. ft.

1 acre = 4840 square yards

1 acre = 4046.8564224 Square Metres

1 hectare = 10,000 Square Metre

1 hectare = 107,639 sq ft

1 hectare = 11959.8 sq. yards (1 sq. yard = 0.83612736 sq. Metre)

1 hectare = 11959.8/4840 = 2.47 acre

## REVENUE TERMINOLOGIES

1. Khewat number : The number of owner of the land

2. Khatoni Number : The number of possesioner/ cultivator of land

3. Khasra number : The number of measurement of area in jamabandi

4. Kita number : The Number mentioning the khasra number in jamabandi

5. Mutation/rapat : Any entry regarding sale purchase or transfer of land

6. Vassiat : transfer of land through will

7. Hiba : transfer of land through gift

8. Billa : Devoid of/without

9. Hadbast number: Number of revenue village boundary

10. Mushqueel/ Murrabha/ rectangle: comprise of 25 Acres/bighas

11. Lal Dora: The boundary of inhabited village, within which ownership of land is generally through possession only.

## Type of land

1. Chahi : Irrigated through wells/tube wells

2. Nahri : Irrigated through Canals

3. Barani : Rainfed

4. Gair mumkin : Non cultivable

5. Abadi : Inhabited

6. Banjar : Not cultivated from four cropping seasons

Type of Possession

1. Khud Kast : Self cultivated

2. Gair Marusi : Unauthorised possessioner (Kache mujahire)

3. Gair Dakhildar : Unauthorised permanent possessioner (pakkee mujahire)

4. Rehan : mortgage with possession

5. Aadrehan : mortgage without possession.